Arthritis- Its Classification, Treatment and Prevention
It is a disease of joints in both males and Females. But it is more common in Females. It may attack in every age, but mostly older people are affected. There are different types of arthritis which affect the people.100 various form of Arthritis exists but most commonly is OSTEOARTHRITIS and RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS. It leads to disability. There will be severe pain and inflammation in that joints. In the initial stage symptoms not appear aggressively but as times passes it becomes worse and limits joints ranges. ARTHUR (related to joint) ITIS (inflammation) so basically it is swelling of joint. Which may affect any joint of the body.
Anatomy of joints:
As joint becomes when two bones meet these allow our body to move the joints at different degrees. There is articular cartilage between joints which allows movement. Due to any problem either it is nutrition deficiency or any other age changes this cartilage going to destroy and limits the movement. And cause pain. There is also a bursa joint capsule and synovial lining around the joint.
Prevalence of Arthritis World Wide:
More than 3.8% of people affected by OSTEOARTHRITIS and RHEUMATOID Arthritis affects 0.24% people. In Australia 15% people affected by GOUT. In the US, this ratio is very high at about more than 20% people affected by a type of Arthritis. As it limits movement of a joint so it decreases Quality of life and people may suffer to do daily activities of Arthritis
Symptoms of Arthritis:
Disability is the most common symptom of Arthritis some main primary symptoms are:
- Weight loss
- Poor sleep
- Pain at night
- Pain severe in the morning
After these symptoms, secondary changes will occur and cause permanent changes because these symptoms people have difficulty moving and exercising. And secondary changes which occur are:
- Decrease aerobic fitness
- Muscle weakness
- Flexibility loses
- And muscle power strength and Endurance loses.
These symptoms including primary symptoms may cause a big effect on life and decrease Quality of life. Arthritis cause disability in U.S and people become homebound because they become physically inactive by these symptoms. In addition to mobility and symptoms as discussed earlier remain physically inactive and cause obesity and by obesity cholesterol level increases and it leads to Heart disease. People with Arthritis have severe depression and people have the great fear of worsening of symptoms.
Health professional by clinical examination diagnosis the Arthritis and this diagnosis further supported by Blood test and other Radiological findings like x- rays MRI depending on suspected arthritis. History mainly matters in the diagnosis and leads the health professional towards the main points to diagnose which arthritis it is. The test may include R.A factor Anti-Nuclear factor and specific antibodies. Any arthritic patient when comes to the physical therapist then physical therapist especially expert can judge by their Gait and also crepitus sound from the joint which is the main symptoms. So the patient is firstly judged by physical examination.
Classification of Arthritis:
It is Degenerative Arthritis and it is the most common form of Arthritis. It occurs when the cartilage and the cushioning surface which is present at ends of bones are absent and bones move against the bone by rubbing it causing pain and there will be swelling. The most common joint which is effected is knee joint.it is associated by morning stiffness which removes after involving in exercise or indulging in any movement it is most commonly in weight-bearing areas. As time passes it becomes chronic. It mainly affects knee joints and it is due to overweight, Family history any previous injury, history of fall. Initially, its symptoms are moderate, and it can be managed by:
- Regular physical activity
- losing weight
- Proper diet
- strengthening the muscles for support
- Taking painkillers and Anti-inflammatory
If symptoms become worse causing the disability and affect the Quality of life and in addition with the above joint replacement is essential.
It can be prevented by remain active, healthy weight and balanced diet and involved in physical activity.
An immune system is proactive for body.it provides immunity to the joint so to get rid of the infection and it prevents disease. But the immune system goes away and then provide uncontrolled inflammation causing erosion and damage to the organs. Rheumatoid Arthritis is one of its examples it occurs when a body’s own immune system attacks because it causes the abnormal inflammation of the internal organs it may affect to any organ not only to the joints but also to any organ of the body. Fingers knees elbow wrist mostly affected in children it appears as fever rash pain and disability. Bone erosions are the main feature in Rheumatoid Arthritis and the process of bone resorbing and bone forming become imbalance and cause inflammation.
It is treated by helper T cells especially Th17 cells these cells are present in joint destruction and produce cytokines.
Bacteria virus or any fungus attack joint and produce inflammation. The organism that infects joints are Salmonella (food poisoning) and Shigella (cause contamination) and sexually transmitted disease caused by Chlamydia and gonorrhea and blood transfusion and shared needle cause this.in many cases, Antibiotics may reduce infection but mostly it becomes chronic.
Uric acid is formed normally in a body and our body get rid of it. but in some cases, due to our diet issue or any other internal problem our body accumulates the needle-like crystals in joints and cause pain and GOUT attacks this attack come and go but if it remains then it becomes chronic. There is also an uncommon form of gout that is caused by the formation of rhomboid crystals of calcium pyrophosphate it is known as PSEUDOGOUT it starts from one joint and slowly attacks all joints it is treated by medication that reduce uric acid production or that medicines which eliminate uric acid through kidneys
There is no special known cure for OSTEOARTHRITIS AND RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS. But treatment may include weight control lifestyle changes PHYSICAL THERAPY Medication and severe stage joint replacement occurs. Medication decreases pain and reduces swelling.
Physical Therapy Treatment:
Physical therapy plays important role in arthritis. As there is joint pain and it limits the mobility and patient avoids that part to move because of pain so the only way is physical therapy to regain the ranges of joint.it may provide the strength and power to the muscles that are supporting to that joint and by physical therapy one can delay his surgical treatment it also provides the endurance and flexibility to the joints. Exercise THAT IS PRESCRIBED BY PHYSICAL THERAPIST is shown to be more effective. As well as an occupational therapist also helps it provides assistance with movement. Assistive devices are recommended to reduce physical barrier and improve the damage body function part.
Regular exercise is very important for Arthritic patients and it is very helpful for the flexibility of joint. Swimming is also good exercise for the Arthritic patients because it reduces the pressure to the joints. A person should remain active and should involve in the daily tasks and regular exercise but before the overexertion, he/she should stop their activity. As there is knee fully stiff and patella is not mobile so to mobilize the patella PHYSICAL THERAPIST to mobilize the patella by mobilization technique.
It is the essential part in Physical therapy and Family support is very helpful in this and patient can do it self also. Especially the young people if they have arthritic changes. For Rheumatoid Arthritis patient is asked to bend fingers and thumb it will cause relief of Pain. For Osteoarthritis stretching exercises should be guided for hamstrings and Quadriceps in it most common is straight leg raise and isometrics of the knee for the strengthening of muscles.
There are the different forms of medicines which is used NSAIDs like ibuprofen. Rheumatoid Arthritis is the autoimmune disease, so it is treated by drug category Disease-modifying ant rheumatic drugs which act on the immune system and slow down the progression of R.A. METHOTREXATE is one of the drugs.
It is the last step which is carried out in severe condition. ARTHROPLASTY is done to improve the physical and medical condition.
What can we do?
There are many things that we can do to prevent it and to preserve the joint mobility joint function and quality of life. y knowing disease its treatment options prevent you from this disease. Remain yourself active in physical activity and use healthy diet to maintain weight because mainly problem starts with obesity. Arthritis is mostly misunderstood disease and people take it generally so if anyone has joint pain inflammation and any crepitus sound he/she should consult the physician so that that disease is early diagnosed and will be treated before it becomes chronic.
A healthy diet is very important to avoid these symptoms of Arthritis and for weight loss as well. It can be done by choosing the Fresh fruits, vegetables, and herbs. These are also helpful to reduce inflammation. If you have Arthritis then you should avoid fast foods like fries, burgers, Dairy products and soft drinks. And healthy people should also reduce the amount of these products.